However, Giarchi discovered that addresses of agencies, circulated locally or deposited in the library, were over ten years out of date. As it became clear very early on in the course of each interview, their work has a personal significance for home helps to which they felt it important to draw my attention. Where was Sociology in the Struggle to Re-establish Public Health? It does, however, offer data and discussions about health conditions in a specific regional context, something called for in the Black Report Townsend et al. Those interviewees who had not worked in the public services sector had commonly held jobs in factories for example, as machinists, assembly line workers or weavers and shops typically as shop assistants or in other semi- and un-skilled posts including clerical jobs and jobs as postwomen, basket-weavers and hand-weavers. In his Cornish study, reported in his article, he shows how the problems of the rural poor were also compounded by age and social isolation. Those in which the mining industry has played a salient role as far as the labour market and the local economy is concerned have been centres of particular kinds of social disadvantage.
While all referred to general, common-sense knowledge of cleaning and caring activities, this latter group of home helps, without the formal experience of the first, placed more stress on domestic and tending skills acquired informally, both to secure jobs and to anticipate guidelines for their work. Brogden 1984 has also referred to the development of indicators of social malaise produced by such an urban bias. While it may be possible to predict which groups in the population are likely to suffer poorer health than other groups, there are limits to the extent to which individual behaviour on its own can alter the outcome. A desire to care for the elderly played a secondary role to these features. It is also suggested that even when firms are brought to court and fined, the fines are too low to act as a real deterrent. Giarchi argues that the further from services people live, the less likely they are to have or to be able to obtain knowledge of them. Cook, on the other hand, has turned it into an art form.
However, we have to explore the social conditions of those with the symptoms and house tenure suggests itself as perhaps the most crucial, as Table 2. Most women anticipated the job of home help to be organized as a female task. It was my judgment that most came from the sort of working-class background where little importance was placed on education for girls whose future was expected to be dominated by their roles as housewives and mothers. Space is rateable and value laden; morphologies reflect the shape of justice and equity. What mattered here was not so much the absence of models for public, social production but the strength of the pre-existing informal ones. Frequently she found this is in respect to chronic illnesses.
The story must unfold in a natural way, present causal connections and be sufficient unto itself. Skills and Experience Given that their reasons for becoming home helps were largely to do with caring for their own family rather than for elderly people, compounded by a lack of qualifications, I was interested to know just how these factors influenced interviewees in the anticipation and construction of their roles. This was certainly the case with respect to tasks like changing light bulbs and hanging curtains, while windows, walls and ceilings were frequently washed more often than was stipulated. The same roles of motherhood and lack of paid employment are likely to have very different health consequences for a woman in a high-rise flat whose husband is unemployed , and a woman married to a professional living in a large house with her own car. This is less true with programme formats which concentrate on one topic at a time. The third related general feature of the changing social and cultural context surrounding health concerns the role of the law. Debate, especially live studio discussion, cannot afford to generate too hot and emotional a climate.
The state of the roads to the remoter dwellings creates hazards not replicated in urban settings. It represents a self-assessment of the effect of any chronic ill health on daily life. Not one of them now has a working pit within its boundaries. Although Saunders was discussing urban sociology, his statement that a pattern of social distribution is superimposed upon an underlying spatial logic Saunders, 1981, p. The rise of such institutional regimes and their place in early capitalist society has been well documented Scull, 1977a; Foucault, 1967, 1973, 1977; Rothman, 1980. Caring for Elderly People: a Question of Relationships It would be easy to suppose that the explanation for home helps seeing themselves as surrogate relatives was the fact that they visited elderly people without family and living alone. In some cases the direction of influence is not clear, so doubleheaded arrows are used.
Moreover, as developed by Blumer and Spector and Kitsuse, the movement between stages is seen as contingent and hence as highly problematic. As we have shown, however, neither smoking nor involvement in the mining industry are the whole story if we are to understand why there should be such high rates of respiratory disease in the localities we have studied. The medical model offers a means to negotiate these boundaries through the restructuring of the social body into the medical body. However, public services disseminate it unevenly. Smoke and Air Pollution Through communication with the Health, Environment and Recreation Department of Wakefield Metropolitan District Council we have been given access to their data concerning smoke control areas and the monitoring of smoke and sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere.
There is a surprising lack of difference by age. Health and Work in the 1990s: Towards a New Perspective, Norma Daykin 12. We have assumed that consonant with other studies of aspects of health, there is a strong relation between relative affluence and good health Townsend et al. The filmed report and the studio discussion of Brass Tacks showed patients as suffering, but also as capable of rational discussion of the issues involved. The explanation of why they are so deprived is based upon several factors. But non-users may also rehearse the moral issues of responsibility and react to the deeper issues of suffering which the programmes show. This has been achieved by providing claims-makers with a terrain for debating the issue and an opportunity to offer ever increasing estimates about the number thought to be dependent.
But as Oakley 1974 has pointed out, ideas about the kind of activity housework is may differ quite significantly between individuals and over time. Voluntary agencies fulfil a social function but also an information giving role. While the approach is still individualistic, the change in tactics has come about, at least in part, because of the recognition that the health of one individual group can affect that of others. What, then, were the reasons for this involvement and the form which it took? One home help looked after her disabled son, another two were caring for their elderly fathers. In general, home helps themselves appeared to distinguish between four different areas of care— domestic, errand, personal and emotional—summarized in Table 5.