Spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s. Protected areas as social‐ecological systems: perspectives from resilience and social‐ecological systems theory 2019-02-15

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Spatial resilience: Integrating landscape ecology, resilience, and sustainability

spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s

At all scales, the calculated spatial resilience was lower in Estepa than in Sierra de Segura because of the proportion of olive groves in Estepa, the size of their patches, and their spatial connectivity promoting a greater homogeneity of the landscape; additionally, the proportion of scrubland areas and the fragmentation of the landscape were smaller. There are no formal exclusion thresholds to cross, as exist for poverty. It results from differences in the economic standard of inhabitants of given areas riches-poverty There is one more criterion, very important if we view the case from a profoundly humanistic perspective—the criterion of social emotions accompanying urban space. This paper also discusses the importance of these environmental components and the maintenance of big data in the management of smart cities. Here we test whether estimates of a species' evolu-tionary age, colonization and persistence ability can explain its current 'range filling' the ratio between realized and potential range size. It argues that, in contrast to the democratic government's intention to use land reform and boundary demarcation to effectively change the spatial legacy of apartheid, these processes tend to cement the geography of the former bantustans.

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Spatial Resilience in Social

spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s

. In addition, they give little importance to the structuration of information and to collective deliberation. We adopt methods of comparing settlements in different eras. The resistance layer was based on land-cover categories with natural areas discounted according to their contribution towards meeting the biological objectives. In addition, several social capitals are mentioned as key to sustaining the village community. Awareness, knowledge, skill, attitude and social capital indices were considered as components of social resilience and the amount and severity of damage, compensation, and the possibility of returning to occupational and financial conditions were considered as the economic resilience components.

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Spatial resilience: Integrating landscape ecology, resilience, and sustainability

spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s

These emerging themes have the potential to transform management and policy approaches for protected areas and have important implications for conservation, in both theory and practice. Our results emphasize the wide range of species-specific responses to fragmentation, the need for elucidation of behavioral mechanisms affecting these responses, and the potential for changing responses to fragmentation over time. Our results indicate that temporal information entropy of ecological time-series data may be used as a natural indicator with respect to sustainability, and in some degree, it helps us to get a better understanding of ecosystem dynamics from a physical-based standpoint. Examination of such phenomena requires the study of how pattern and variability change with the scale of description, and the development of laws for simplification, aggregation, and scaling. Each of these remedies leads to a reduction in the spatial size of the city. To illustrate diversity in the ecological effects of connectivity we summarise the state of knowledge for two model systems: 1 fish migration in tropical seascapes; and 2 carbon transfer the land-sea interface. To analyze the data, descriptive and analytical statistical methods, including one-sample t-test, univariate and multiple linear regressions, were used.

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Protected areas as social‐ecological systems: perspectives from resilience and social‐ecological systems theory

spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s

Methods We measured rates of herbivory on fleshy macroalgae and piscivory on prey fish on reefs that differed in their proximity to both other reefs and nearby mangroves and seagrass. This editorial, and the papers in the invited feature that it introduces, discuss three emerging themes in social-ecological systems approaches to understanding protected areas: 1 the resilience and sustainability of protected areas, including analyses of their internal dynamics, their effectiveness, and the resilience of the landscapes within which they occur; 2 the relevance of spatial context and scale for protected areas, including such factors as geographic connectivity, context, exchanges between protected areas and their surrounding landscapes, and scale dependency in the provision of ecosystem services; and 3 efforts to re-frame what protected areas are and how they both define and are defined by the relationships of people and nature. The authors consider that tourism and nature protection are potentially compatible and that the synergies should be identified. The model illustrates how adaptive cycles and panarchies, the formal building blocks of resilience recognized in ecology, can be expressed as a set of hierarchically nested geomorphic and ecological metrics. Si los niveles de variación natural en el comportamiento de un sistema son reducidos a través de comando-y-control, entonces el sistema se hace menos elastico a las perturbaciones externas, lo cual resulta en crisis y sorpresas. The observer imposes a perceptual bias, a filter through which the system is viewed.

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Spatial resilience in social

spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s

This article argues that urban spatial expansion results mainly from three powerful forces: a growing population, rising incomes, and falling commuting costs. Landscape ecologists have already made considerable progress towards a more general understanding of the relevance of spatial variation for ecosystems. In particular, it supports the maintenance of biological diversity, allowing for the magnification of underlying patterns of variation in the physical environment to create many resources from few, through the evolutionary diversification of species' niches and life histories. Although such contradictions present challenges to policy-makers engaging with climate resilience, the analysis provides a clearer diagnoses of key challenges to the resilience of agricultural systems and insights into where policy interventions might be most effective. Given this, a complex systems perspective suggests that the degree to which management is decentralized-giving greater decision-making control to local system managers-may play a particularly important role in conditioning social-ecological dynamics and the resilience of local systems, for example, by facilitating tighter coupling between ecological changes and social responses Cumming 2011. Mapping multiple landscape services of agricultural land at various spatiotemporal scales can reveal the distribution and evolution of landscape services. Esto se manifesta en los intentos de controlar los ecosistemas y en instituciones socioeconómicas que responden a los comportamientos erráticos o sorpresivos de los ecosistemas con más control.

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New Directions for Understanding the Spatial Resilience of Social

spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s

Precise remedies for these market failures are two types of development taxes and congestion tolls levied on commuters. Both strategies diminish the buffer capacity that may be needed in the future, in case the disturbances exacerbate. While the trophic structure of many coral reef fish assemblages reveals prey species outweighing their predators, recent observations from little-exploited reefs suggest the opposite — inverted biomass pyramids with the mass of piscivorous predators exceeding that of their prey. Social implications The views of a wide variety of stakeholders should be considered in landscape planning. The book follows a trajectory from concepts through models, methods, and case study analysis before revisiting the central problems in the further conceptual development of the field. Conservation biology and applied ecology increasingly recognise that natural resource management is both an outcome and a driver of social, economic, and ecological dynamics.

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Spatial Resilience in Social

spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s

We do not know, however, whether and how different types of spatial linkages combine to influence ecological functions, and this hampers their integration into conservation planning. Furthermore, there is no single natural scale at which ecological phenomena should be studied; systems generally show characteristic variability on a range of spatial, temporal, and organizational scales. Natural resource managers face many challenges that emerge over entire landscapes. The pressure of tourism on the natural environment and host communities is increasing and in some areas, where tourism relies on landscape quality, natural resources are under pressure due to over exploitation. To determine where threshold effects in species' responses to landscape structure are likely to occur, we developed a simulation When elephant densities exceed approximately 0. We develop a coarse-grained connectivity map between protected areas to aid decision-making for implementing corridors to maintain floristic diversity in the face of global change. However, they are often limited to coarse-grained spatio-temporal resolutions.

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Spatial Resilience in Social

spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s

Methods For 37 species of woody plants Proteaceae , we estimate range filling using atlas data and distribution models, evolutionary age using molecular phylogenies, and persistence ability using estimates of individual longevity which determines the probability of extinction of local populations. Spatial resilience Cumming, 2011 Resilience as maintaining identity over time: ''maintenance of key components and relationships and the continuity of these through time''; ''if resilience is low, identity may be lost and if identity is lost, resilience was low. An exciting recent development is to explicitly try to integrate landscape ecology and ideas about resilience in social-ecological systems through the concept of spatial resilience. Active adaptive management and governance of resilience will be required to sustain desired ecosystem states and transform degraded ecosystems into fundamentally new and more desirable configurations. Quantitative targets set to meet these aims provide a yardstick with which to measure the current conservation status of biodiversity features and measure the success of conservation actions. In this book I have attempted to provide the first comprehensive synthesis of a set of interrelated ideas that together create a foundation for an emerging field, the study of spatial resilience in social-ecological systems. Paying greater attention to the spatial and temporal dynamics of power may be much more than a project of introducing yet another variable into the already complex admixture of analytic elements.

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Books I Read: Spatial Resilience of Social

spatial resilience in social ecological systems cumming graeme s

Permafrost is one of the key components of terrestrial ecosystem in cold regions. In this paper, some of the mathematical challenges are discussed. We examined species richness of woody plants, birds, bats, mantises and ants in reserves where elephants had destroyed the miombo woodland and in adjacent but intact miombo woodlands outside the reserves. The monitoring and assessment of environmental factors will continuously generate big data and hence would require scientific and technological innovation for a sustainable management plan. Additionally, the results may be utilized as basic data to build and implement coastal land-use planning strategies. Context: As global landscapes continue to change, the sustainability of the ecosystem services they support are increasingly coming into question.

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