A deficit of time for executing instructional activities, unrealistic community expectations and a glut of paperwork were also cited as reasons for the shortfall. The more removed coaches are from the actual work of teachers in classrooms, the less likely they are to have an impact on what it is teachers do there. Instructional coaching: Key themes from the literature. Communication skills Of course, instructional principals should be excellent communicators. And at the heart of school capacity are principals focused on the development of teachers' knowledge and skills, professional community, program coherence, and technical resources.
Peer coaching as a strategy to build instructional capacity in low performing schools. Meeting the Needs of All Students Understanding Student Needs Differentiated Instruction Summary 4. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 5 3 , 229-250. These are all important considerations for instructional leaders as they design a coaching program that best meets their teachers' strengths and their students' needs. The Cultural Change Principal is the lead learner in the school and models lifelong learning by sharing what he or she has read lately, engaging in and encouraging action research, and implementing inquiry groups among the staff. Educational Research and Evaluation, 7 4 , 385-417.
This type of visible and transparent support also might encourage staff members truly averse to change to leave. Instructional coaching: Key themes from the literature. Learning to change: School coaching for systemic reform. In order to achieve this objective, a strong principal with solid ideas is not enough; success will require a redefinition of the role of the principal. Linking ideas to practice Effectiveness of coaching in teacher practice. Getting down from the ivory tower and stepping out of the principal's office, these authors offer some of the most important and useful books about leadership that principals can buy. Fortunately, the design of coaching programs can be informed by the larger body of research on effective professional development, which suggests that certain activities do positively influence teacher and student learning, consistent with the findings described.
The Cultural Change Principal knows the difference between being an expert in a given content innovation and being an expert in managing the process of change. In some cases, coaching programs have multiple goals. Instructional coaching: Key themes from the literature. In the social and moral environment of the school, we need the resources to close the achievement gap between high and low performers, to develop all schools in the system, and to connect schools to the strength of democracy in society. The series should be required reading for all school leaders.
Harvard Business Review, 78 6 , 57-67; Mullen, C. The Cultural Change Principal knows that building relationships and teams is the most difficult skill for both business and education leaders Hay Management Consultants, 2000. The empirical evidence on instructional coaching is limited, but there are several studies indicating that one aspect of coaching, the degree to which coaches have direct interactions with teachers, is likely to lead to changes in teachers' instructional practice. Harvard Business Review, 78 6 , 57-67; Mullen, C. Instructional coaching: Key themes from the literature. There is also some evidence to suggest that certain coaching styles, or approaches, are more suited to particular contexts. Structure Time Strategically In their survey of 1,100 randomly selected teachers in the Los Angeles Unified School District, Ai and Rivera found that a high percentage of respondents did not think there was enough time scheduled for participating in coaching activities.
The articles put the problems and suggestions into everyday terms that make it easier for an over-worked teacher to understand and implement. Effects of peer coaching on teacher and student outcomes. The Cultural Change Principal treats students, teachers, parents, and others in the school well. Instructional policy and classroom performance: The athematics reform in California. A norm of sharing one's knowledge with others is the key to continual growth for all.
This issue brief focuses primarily on the second of these tasks — the principal's role in developing a targeted coaching strategy. Accountability by design in literacy professional development. Learning out of context takes place when principals go to a workshop or conference. Successful leaders don't mind when naysayers rock the boat. Problems that are noted in the research literature include coaches who are responsible for multiple school sites, have burdensome administrative responsibilities e.
What We Know Makes the Difference Transforming the Culture: The Role of the School Leader Assessing Program: One Size Does Not Fit All Recognizing Teacher Perception: Think They Will or Think They Won't, You're Right! Peer coaching as a strategy to build instructional capacity in low performing schools. Results from a national sample of teachers. The heart of the matter: The coaching model in America's Choice schools. Likewise, different approaches might be warranted for newer teachers who do not have the experience to define instructional problems and may therefore need more upfront guidance. Teachers who eagerly seek to improve their practice and embrace the coaching process may be the best candidates for the consulting model; recalcitrant teachers may benefit less from it. Principals and school leaders continue to strive for balance and proficiency in their roles as instructional leaders.
Administrators have responded to this dilemma in several ways, including implementing late arrival or early release days for students a few times a month. Form nd substance in inservice teacher education Research onograph No. Getting down from the ivory tower and stepping out of the principal's office, these authors offer some of the most important and useful books about leadership that principals can buy. Peer coaching as a strategy to build instructional capacity in low performing schools. Results: The key to continuous school improvement 2nd ed. Team coaching: Staff development side by side. These conference days also allow leaders to rub shoulders with some of the authors of books that inform thousands—even millions—of classrooms.
Boston: Harvard Business School Press. The persistent dream: A principal's promising reform of an at-risk elementary urban school. This finding presents a scheduling challenge for administrators who wish to balance the need to have coaches attend meetings and be informed participants in overall reform efforts with the need to ensure that coaches have the time they need to work with teachers. Cultivating Leaders at Many Levels An organization cannot flourish—at least, not for long—on the actions of the top leader alone. Conclusion The research evidence suggests that strong instructional leaders greatly can impact teaching and learning. Peer coaching as a strategy to build instructional capacity in low performing schools. Such a principal also works to develop other leaders in the school to prepare the school to sustain and even advance reform after he or she departs.